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Author Archive

Dr. Ryan Shelton, N.M.D.

Dr. Ryan embodies our philosophy of natural treatments backed by hard science. Between his best-selling books and his medical practice in Hawaii, Dr. Ryan has helped hundreds of thousands of men & women reach their health goals. Here at Zenith Labs, Dr. Ryan and his team use their extensive knowledge of alternative medicine and recent developments in traditional medicine to custom-formulate each supplement. Each formula relies on a precise combination of ingredients to maximize results.

Pollution's Effect on Blood Pressure

Pollution’s Effect on Blood Pressure

Millions of Americans suffer from high blood pressure. It seems that most would attribute these massive numbers from either poor diet, lack of exercise, overconsumption of alcohol, or any other of the myriad of causes commonly associated with high blood pressure.

Traffic Pollution

However, research is pointing to additional, less obvious factors that may contribute to high blood pressure. It seems that sitting in traffic has more than just a temporary effect on blood pressure rising, as studies show that traffic noise and pollution can actually cause more long term damage, among this damage, high blood pressure and eventually, hypertension.

Studies have linked two extremely scarcely examined causes of high blood pressure. Studies show that air pollution, specifically the type caused by traffic and traffic noise show a strong connection with high blood pressure.

An August 2016 study looked at the effect of traffic-related air pollution on cardio-metabolic risk. The study divided 371 people from Shanghai, China into four categories according to their distance from major roads.

An August 2016 study looked at the effect of traffic-related air pollution on cardio-metabolic risk. The study divided 371 people from Shanghai, China into four categories according to their distance from major roads.

The study found that long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may cause a whole host of problems like serious cardio-metabolic disorders related to increased systemic inflammation, reduces insulin sensitivity, hardening of the arteries, and last but not least, high blood pressure.

High blood pressure

Similar studies show that the effects of traffic noise can have an equal, even compounding effect on high blood pressure, with one study concluding that “Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP.”

Similar studies show that the effects of traffic noise can have an equal, even compounding effect on high blood pressure, with one study concluding that “Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP.”

Stuck in traffic

It’s important to continually monitor your exposure to traffic, and more importantly, the pollution that it creates. Sitting in traffic can become deadly, even for the calmest commuter.

Coenzyme Q10 for Hearing Loss

Coenzyme Q10 for Hearing Loss

Hearing Loss

Being the third most common health problem in America, more than 200,000 people in the United States report hearing loss each year. A total of about 48 million Americans live with some hearing loss. The causes vary widely from aging to catastrophic damage to the ear, with the usual cause being inner ear damage. Inner ear damage can be caused by genetic defects, disease, injury, prolonged exposure to loud noises, old age, and even via certain medications.

Due to the nature of the ear, many types of hearing loss are untreatable, which means that the best way to treat hearing loss is to avoid it.

Some types of hearing loss absolutely cannot be avoided. One such cause is old age. Old age is the most common cause of hearing loss, affecting one out of every three people between the ages of 65 and 74, and one in two people over the age of 75.

We are told that the medication we’re prescribed is to help us get better, but some medication can actually make matters worse, and some can cause hearing loss. Over 200 medications have been found to negatively impact hearing, and some are quite surprising, like aspirin and antibiotics. Other medications like chemotherapy drugs, loop diuretics, drugs to treat malaria, and even drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction have been found to cause hearing loss.

Drugs and prescription medications

Scientists are continually studying the effects that aging has on the ear, aside from the simplified notion that things just degrade as they age. Researchers are studying the mechanisms and biology of hearing loss in ways never done before.

One such compound being explored for its benefits to hearing is coenzyme Q10. Research is underway to find out if this antioxidant compound can help mitigate the effects of hearing loss.

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10, or CoQ10 for short, is an essential element in the body, responsible for aiding many daily biological functions, and providing powerful antioxidant properties to help eliminate free radicals. Commonly thought to help treat certain heart problems, CoQ10 has been used in medicine practices for decades.

On noise induced hearing loss, CoQ10 has also shown promise.

Not all exposure to extremely loud noises causes permanent hearing loss. Very often, the exposed person will experience temporary hearing loss or impairment. This condition is called temporary threshold shift (TTS) and can cause hearing to become diminished for an undeterminable amount of time. The amount of time that it takes to recover depends largely on the intensity and duration of the exposure, with the most recovery taking place within the first 15 minutes after exposure.

Coenzyme Q10, diluted in water for better bioavailability to cells, has been found to have a protective effect on the tiny hairs inside the ear after exposure to loud noises. Researchers exposed 30 volunteers to a 90 decibel noise in one ear for 10 minutes, after which they evaluated for severity of TTS.

The ear

Before treatment with coenzyme Q10, the longest recovery time was 45 minutes. After treatment, the mean recovery time was 31 minutes. Researchers speculate that the improvement has to do with the effect of Coenzyme Q10 on the outer ear hairs. Because CoQ10 is a powerful antioxidant, it helps the hairs resist oxidative stress which can damage the follicle.

One of the worst ways to lose your hearing is from medication. The emotional stress and heartache can really take its toll on a person. People are prescribed medication that gives them hope of recovery from one illness, only to have it cause more ailments. Fortunately, coenzyme Q10 has also been shown to help treat medication induced hearing loss as well.

Ototoxicity refers to drug or chemical-related damage to the inner ear, resulting in damage to the organs responsible for hearing and balance. Even very safe drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen can cause ototoxicity if taken in excess, but the most common drugs that cause this ailment are certain antibiotics like gentamicin, streptomycin, and neomycin.

Taking coenzyme Q10

One study shows that CoQ10 is effective in mitigating the ototoxic effects on the ear caused by gentamicin. This antibiotic is known to produce free radicals in the body via the formation of an iron gentamicin complex. Antioxidants like CoQ10 help to eliminate free radicals and prevent cellular damage.

In a 14 day evaluation of guinea pigs, researchers found that “[coenzyme Q10] therapy slowed and attenuated the progression of hearing loss, yielding a threshold shift of 20 decibels.” Gentamicin caused significant loss of outer hair cells in the cochlear medio-basal turn, but this effect was not observed in the animals treated with coenzyme Q10.

Researchers believe that it is the antioxidant prowess of CoQ10 that helps to fight off free radicals, especially in the hair follicle.

The good news is that the body synthesizes CoQ10 naturally, and this natural creation coupled with dietary intake seems to be enough. But as the body ages, it produces less coenzyme Q10, so those over the age of 40 may want to think about supplementing. As an antioxidant, CoQ10 is fantastic, protecting the body all over against disease-causing free radicals, and for hearing, this means retaining the hairs in the inner and outer ear longer, slowing down the effects of all types of hearing loss.

Coenzyme Q10 supplements
Arjuna for Blood Pressure

Arjuna for Blood Pressure

Feeling stressed out in today’s fast paced world is seemingly a byproduct of life, unavoidable with the amount of stressors present. But continually being a little stressed out can do more damage than you think.

Extreme stress

Chronic stress can lead to an incredible amount of complications later in life. Stress, and the stress reaction in the body, causes the body to produce hormones that are intended to help it react to physical danger, a remnant of our ancestral tribulations.

Stress in the modern world is not the same as it used to be when our bodies evolved to respond effectively. We used to use our fight or flight response to avoid physical stress and danger present in the world around us, but modern stress is much more pervasive and persistent. We’ve got mortgages, family matters, traffic, work problems, and other daily stressors that we take home with us, and constantly weigh on our minds.

This pervasive stress forces the body to constantly produce stress hormones, like cortisol and adrenaline, which over a long period of time and continual exposure, do damage to the body. Stress can cause serious ailments like asthma, obesity, fatigue, irritability, lack of motivation and interest, headaches, upset stomach, reduced appetite and sexual drive, and the stress related diseases that kill are heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and many more.

Referred to as the “silent killer”, high blood pressure is as dangerous as the name implies. Statistics show that as many as 110 million people die from stress and related issues every year. High blood pressure alone has been found to harden the arteries, leading to an incredible range of problems.

High blood pressure

Researchers have found that modern stress, that which is persistent and continual, causes the body to remain in the alarm phase of fight or flight, after which the body attempts to repair itself and return hormone levels to normal. But pervasive stress response renders the body unable to repair itself and return to normal, which eventually leads to the final phase, the exhaustion phase.

Exhaustion is a common side effect of adrenaline release. This stage in the stress response is thought to be the cause of many chronic diseases because the body is constantly in a state of exhaustion.

Prescription medication

With so much damage being done by stress and high blood pressure, it is important to treat it in a way that is sustainable and effective. Many of the prescription medications people take are doing more harm than good, themselves causing health issues within the body.

Traditional medicinal systems like Traditional Chinese Medicine in China, and Ayurvedic medicine in India, have been treating stress and high blood pressure with natural, safe, and effective remedies for centuries, and studies from the west are finally lending credence to their traditional medicines. Arjuna has been used as a heart remedy in India for over 3000 years.

One such treatment often used in traditional medicine is called arjuna. Terminalia arjuna is a tree of the genus Terminalia. It is commonly known as arjuna or arjun tree in English, thella maddi in Telugu, kumbuk in Sinhala, marudha maram in Tamil and neer maruthu in Malayalam.

Terminalia arjuna

Many people around the world rely on arjuna as a natural remedy for their high blood pressure, believed to provide such benefits as supporting the muscle tone of the heart, providing antioxidant power and healthy flavonoids and polyphenols, and benefitting blood flow throughout the body. Many animal and clinical studies have validated its anti-ischemic, antihypertensive, antihypertrophic and antioxidant effects.

Terminalia arjuna bark

The bark is the primary material used for medication, which contains phenolic constituents (arjunolic acid and terminic acid), glycosides (arjunetin and arjunosides I–IV), flavones, tannins, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and b-sitosterol.

In addition to high blood pressure, arjuna has been thought to help with a variety of other ailments, including the suppression of the herpes virus by inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and even to help heal wounds.

For hypertension, arjuna has been studied with impressive results. One study, published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, tested the ability of an arjuna extract on pulmonary hypertension. Researchers created an extract of the stem bark of arjuna and tested it on lab rats.

This study placed subjects into groups, and treated some with a prescription medication called sildenafil, a vasodilator used to treat erectile dysfunction and hypertension, and the others into a group treated with arjuna extract. The study concluded that arjuna was able to treat high blood pressure as well as the prescription medication sildenafil, yet arjuna is widely believed to be completely free from side effects, while sildenafil carries with it sometimes significant side effects.

Other studies have found much of the same, with one concluding that “Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities” and that “So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy.”

Arjuna medication can be found easily online, especially as it continues to gain popularity. For high blood pressure, arjuna works via its mild diuretic properties, as it can reduce blood clot formation, enhance prostaglandin levels, and lowers blood lipid levels, each of which contributes to its ability to help mediate hypertension.

Like all medications, it is important to consult with a physician before beginning a serious treatment process. Currently, arjuna is widely believed to have zero counter indications with medication, and little to no negative side effects, so it is believed to be very safe for use.

Not only is arjuna believed to be extremely safe when used in conjunction with other medications, some studies have shown that it actually may aid other medications in their effectiveness. Western doctors and researchers are only just beginning to scratch the surface of this traditional eastern remedy, but it looks as if arjuna will soon be included in the typical western remedy for hypertension.

It is helpful to think of stress not as the cause of a problem, but the symptom of problems that are occurring externally. It is our body’s reaction to external problems, thus, if we are to effectively treat stress, we must help our bodies better adjust to external factors, and arjuna indeed provides promise, helping the heart function more effectively, improving blood flow throughout the body, helping the body cope with adrenaline response, and much more.

ED relief with natural substances

ED relief with natural substances

Of all the catastrophic conditions that a man can suffer from, few are more emotionally taxing than erectile dysfunction. ED can seriously affect a man’s confidence, ego, and overall mood, which has an enormous effect on his overall psyche.

The cold hard fact is that most men will experience some form of erectile dysfunction at some point in their lives. While most cases are due to temporary abnormalities, like overconsumption of alcohol or drugs, prescription medication being taken, or correctable health issues, sometimes erectile dysfunction can serve as a symptom of a much more serious health concern.

When erectile dysfunction becomes persistent, a more serious inquiry into possible causes must be made. Studies show that ED can even serve as a precursor to cardiac arrest, so paying close attention to your member is more than just a manhood issue, it can be a life or death issue for some.

Because ED is somewhat perceived by many as a normal part of being a guy and aging, affecting as much as 25 percent of men over 65, many are unlikely to address it as a serious health concern.

One of the most serious conditions that erectile dysfunction is a symptom for is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Research has found that ED and cardiovascular disease share a few of the same risk factors, coexisting frequently. As much as 70 percent of men who have cardiovascular disease also have erectile dysfunction, with the erectile dysfunction often preceding a major cardiovascular incident, like a serious heart attack, by 2 to 5 years.

Cardiovascular disease

The major reason that ED and CVD are so closely related is largely due to the lining of blood vessels, impacted by a perpetually unhealthy lifestyle. Without adequate blood flow, the penis cannot become erect, and cardiovascular disease often inhibits blood flow.

Fortunately, there are lifestyle changes that can be made to restore proper blood flow by restoring the inner lining of the body’s blood vessels, and it largely can be accomplished with diet changes, including adding foods high in restorative compounds like L-Arginine, pycnogenol, citrulline, Scutellaria, and cinnamon.

In order for an erection to occur, the cavernous smooth muscle must relax, an event triggered by the compound nitric oxide (NO). Thus, men with diminished amounts of nitric oxide may experience erectile dysfunction.

Researchers believe that nitric oxide is necessary for not only relaxing smooth muscle cells to dilate blood vessels, but also absorbs reactive oxygen species (ROS) to prevent permanent penile changes occurring as well as damaging collagen/glycosylated proteins forming.

Age related erectile dysfunction is usually associated with a reduction in smooth muscle cells and an increase in collagen within the corpora cavernosa, the main vessels forming the penis. This increase is associated with an increase in ROS.

Nitric oxide, or more specifically inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that produces nitric oxide is the body’s natural way of preventing the overproduction of ROS, scavenging and eliminating it before it causes damage. Thus, age related erectile dysfunction is a result of underproduction of nitric oxide, and supplementation can help.

A study published back in 2003 confirmed that pycnogenol can stimulate nitric oxide production, and when coupled with another compound, L-arginine substantially increased the production of nitric oxide.

The study was conducted on 40 men aged between 25 and 45 years old. For three months participants were treated with a solution containing the equivalent of 1.7g of L-arginine alone, with discouraging results.

Pycnogenol-pine bark

However, when combined with pycnogenol, the treatments showed extremely promising results. When combined, the supplementation of L-arginine with pycnogenol restored the sexual ability of 80 percent of participants. After 3 months of treatments, an astounding 92.5 percent of participants experienced restored erections. Perhaps just as promising as its efficacy is this treatment’s safety. No side-effects were reported, making it perhaps the safest treatment for ED known to this point.

Part of a chemical building block called an amino acid, L-arginine is obtained from food consumed and essential for the body to make proteins. L-arginine is found in abundance in red meat, fish, nuts and seeds, and poultry. L-arginine is commonly used as a treatment for blood vessel conditions, which also makes it an intuitive treatment option for erectile dysfunction.

Citrulline is an interesting compound that is converted into L-arginine in the kidneys. So while L-arginine gets absorbed by the body, L-citrulline may be a better option for supplementation, allowing the body to create its own supply of L-arginine that doesn’t get depleted so quickly, as studies show that Supplemental L-arginine provides a spike of L-arginine in plasma, while supplemental L-citrulline increases arginine plasma levels over a longer period of time.

Not only great for blood sugar regulation among a host of other peripheral benefits, cinnamon is another great compound that has been found to help treat ED. Cinnamon is a popular spice in every kitchen, but it has also been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic medicine in India for ages, sometimes as a treatment for erectile dysfunction.


Studies show that when given an extract of Cinnamomum cassia has the ability to inhibit arginase, aiding the smooth muscles in the corpus cavernosum. Researchers have found that a cinnamon extract can “relaxed phenylephrine pre-contracted isolated rat CCSM up to 43% and significantly increased (P < 0.05) sexual function of young male rats. Treatment with the extract also increased smooth muscle level and decreased collagen level in rat penile tissue.” As mentioned above, increasing smooth muscle function and reducing the buildup of collagen in the penis is paramount for proper penis function.

It would take more concentrated, power-packed dosages of these natural medications for erectile dysfunction to restore a man’s erection, so eating more spiced up French toast isn’t going to necessarily restore function. The herb Scutellaria has been studied thoroughly to have similar results.

But these studies in a more natural approach to erectile dysfunction, as well as other problematic disorders, definitely represents a step in the right direction for western medicine. Natural remedies are prized for their reliability, efficacy, and perhaps above all, their lack of serious side effects, if any at all, so the future definitely looks bright for western medicine to make a shift to less impactful medications.

The Importance of Potency in Supplements

The Importance of Potency in Supplements

Walk into any supermarket and you will undoubtedly see entire aisles dedicated to nutritional supplements, vitamins, and other health oriented products. Perhaps the fervor at which Americans pursue better health can be conflated to this image, an endless aisle filled with near limitless choices. Polls show that more than half of all Americans regularly supplement their diet with vitamins.

Supplements in a pharmacy

Yet, not all of the products on the market are equal in a few extremely important categories like potency, purity, and accuracy of labeling. Estimates have determined that billions of dollars are spent every year on supplements that simply do not work. There are many reasons to explain why a supplement may be ineffective, but potency is perhaps the most important.

Potency, defined as the power of something to influence or make an impression, is extremely important in determining the efficacy of a supplement. In pharmacology, potency is expressed in terms of the amount it takes of a substance to produce an effect of given intensity. A highly potent compound will produce strong results at low concentrations, and vice versa for lower potency compounds.

With potency being of so much importance, one would think that more oversight would exist concerning the accuracy of purity claims on supplement labels, but companies continue to sell less potent products than the label states, duping customers out of billions each year.

Do Your Research when Selecting a Supplement.

The Federal Drug Administration issues Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations, which a vigilant consumer should ensure are being followed by companies whose supplements they consume.

With growing concern about substandard manufacturing processes in the dietary supplement industry, the FDA introduced these standards, attempting to ensure that the proper controls be in place for dietary supplements during manufacturing, packaging, labeling and holding operations. As per the FDA website, “This includes establishing strong quality management systems, obtaining appropriate quality raw materials, establishing robust operating procedures, detecting and investigating product quality deviations, and maintaining reliable testing laboratories.”

Choosing supplements

Because consumer safety is the result of companies producing inferior products, the FDA considers any product manufactured by a company not following cGMPs to be “adulterated” under the law. However, like all consumer products, many inferior products slip through the cracks, so it is important to remain vigilant when selecting a supplement company.

Some companies take their supplements above and beyond United States standards. The Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is similar to our American FDA, with the exception that they are even more stringent concerning which supplements make it to Australian shelves.

The TGA is considered to be the most stringent, toughest regulatory agency in the world, and because of this have an extremely great reputation for protecting Australian consumers from harmful products. The Aussies are among the leaders of the world in discovering and banning toxic substances, leaving the USA sometimes decades behind, so if a supplement you’re investigating has been approved by the TGA, it is extremely likely to be safe, effective, and accurately labeled, a luxury not always enjoyed by American shoppers.

Another great identifier of quality supplements is whether or not they’ve been tested by a third party laboratory. Because there are fewer restrictions on goods labeled “dietary supplements”, there are also fewer government oversights regulating the industry. This is why third party testing is important. A supplement that has been identified by an unbiased third party lends a lot of credibility to the supplement and its manufacturing process.

Third-party testing for supplements

To truly ensure that the potency of a supplement is as labeled, it must be tested by a reputable third party laboratory.

The Nutritional and Sports Supplements certification (NSF) has become the gold standard in third party evaluation, having developed the nation’s first independent testing standard and product certification program strictly for dietary supplements.

Using three major components, the NSF certifies products against NSF/ANSI 173, the only American National Standard that establishes requirements for the ingredients in dietary and nutritional supplements.

Checking labels on supplements
  1. Label Claim Review: Testing to certify that the label accurately reflects ingredients in the supplement.
  1. Toxicology Review: Certifying product formulation.
  1. Contamination Review: Certifying that the product does not contain any undeclared ingredients or toxic contaminants.

While some independent laboratories claim to be unbiased, there is a lot of collusion in American business, so the NSF is the self-proclaimed “independent, third-party testing organization that offers true testing of dietary supplements.”

In addition to good manufacturing practices and third party evaluation, when assessing the potency of a supplement you want to look for a certificate of analysis (COA). A certificate of analysis means that a product has been tested in areas like proper manufacturing guidelines, adherence to specifications, contaminant testing, and more.

Testing for potency

Each of these areas are important in determining the potency of the product. Because there are so little regulations in the Unites States concerning dietary supplements, companies from outside the U.S. are shipping in inferior products for much cheaper than American products. But this cost savings comes at a price. Many overseas factories do not place emphasis on meeting the health standards that Americans hold in such high regard.

This is not to say that all foreign supplements are inferior to American supplements, but in general, it is always best practice to ensure a supplement that you’re using has been certified as pure and potent with a certificate of analysis.

Pure supplements

When choosing a dietary supplement, remember, you are putting a foreign substance into your body, so don’t just take a company’s word for it. Do some investigating, and find out how far the company has gone to ensure the quality of its product.

Choosing a higher quality product will inevitably mean spending more, but when it comes to safety and reliability, you should really spare no expense, after all, your health and wellbeing relies on it.

Looking for a few simple quality identifiers like the NSF approval, certificate of analysis, and testing by an unbiased third party will ensure that you’re not wasting your money on dietary supplements that are ineffective and laden with harmful toxins. Putting in the extra work up front will ensure that you’re spending money on truly potent products.

Choline for Brain Health

Choline for Brain Health

Your brain

While almost every aspect of the body is completely vital for its survival, excluding a few leftover organs from the caveman era, the brain can prove to be especially needy for optimal function. The brain controls the entire life system, so when it’s not functioning properly, not just one body part shows the effects, numerous body parts cease to function properly

One great example of how an unhealthy brain can affect an entire body is in the event of a stroke. Most
strokes occur when blood vessels burst in the brain, or become blocked due to a blood clot. Strokes can
do tremendous damage to the brain, and in its wake, tremendous damage to the body. Those who’ve
experienced difficult strokes lose their most prized possessions, including the power of motion in certain
body parts, the power of speech, hearing, and taste; and in the occasion of a stroke, all other functions
and senses are on the table to be lost as well.

Most brain illness is not necessarily due to unhealthy or unsafe conditions. The brain is extremely intricate and simply put, in one way or another, age is the primary reason for mental deterioration. Cells eventually replicate less effectively, and eventually cease to replicate. As cells in the body age, they become less effective at doing their jobs, and as a result, the brain ultimately suffers, becoming less and less efficient at its job as the body ages.

Brain Cells

Before the ultimate end to our brains, they begin to decline in many ways, most notably in the realm of
cognition. Our thoughts come more slowly, feelings and senses become dulled and blunt, and reaction
time is severely delayed as the brain ages.

Some age related cognitive decline is more serious than others. Complicated and degenerative diseases
like Alzheimer’s disease pose not only cognitive threats to those suffering from them, but eventually
cause death.

But normal, nondisease related age related cognitive decline, or cognitive aging as it is commonly
referred to, effects certain cognitive abilities like conceptual reasoning, memory, and processing speed.

There are countless studies taking place daily in which scientists are fervently trying to uncover the
mysteries behind diseases like Alzheimer’s in order to develop effective and universal treatment
options. Thus far, it seems that a great way to help prevent age related cognitive decline is via diet, and
there are a lot of great dietary ways to include compounds that can strengthen the mind, even in old

A promising compound being studies is the macronutrient choline, a precursor of acetylcholine, a
neurotransmitter vital to nerve and muscle function. Studies show that choline deficiency can lead to
chronic liver damage and eventual liver failure.

Choline in foods

This compound that is great for the liver is also great for cognitive function. In all, choline helps support many functions throughout the body like liver function, brain function and development, nerve function, supports energy levels, muscle movement, and helps to balance the metabolism.

In brain function, the hippocampus is responsible for the autonomous nervous system, as well as emotion and memory.

A study published in the journal Brain Research, conducted testing on the effects of choline on the hippocampus, finding it to increase hippocampal neurogenesis and provide protection against seizure-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairment, having already been found to enhance memory and cognitive function in stroke and Alzheimer’s patients.

During a seizure, the brain can become damaged as neurons get damaged. This damage affects learning and memory among other cognitive functions.

Damaged neurons

Researchers tested whether or not choline can help to ameliorate seizure induced damage to the brain. Choline was injected into the muscle tissue of seizure-suffering rats, with positive results.

Treatments that were given between 1 and 3 weeks after seizure showed neuroprotective effect but no effect on neurogenesis. However, when researchers injected choline beginning at 3 weeks after seizure, participants showed positive results after 3 weeks of treatments.

The rats were initially given a maze test to measure cognitive function. After their seizures, cognitive function declined, but after 3 weeks of treatments researchers found reduced neuronal death and BBB disruption, as well as increased neurogenesis, concluding that choline injections could also be a beneficial treatment for improvement of cognitive function in people living with epilepsy.

Drugs for Alzheimer patients.

Choline can also help work synergistically with established cognitive function medications, with one study noting its ability to increase the effects of donepezil, a popular drug used to treat Alzheimer’s patients.

And finally, even one more study examining the benefits of choline touts choline’s ability to aid even moderate Alzheimer’s dementia.

For this study, 261 patients suffering from dementia were given 400mg capsules of either choline or a placebo for 180 days, assessing cognition at 90 days as well as the end of the trial.

Using a cognitive scale, researchers found that the patients being treated with choline supplements improved cognition, while those receiving a placebo had continued to decline, concluding that the study indeed suggests that choline can be an effective treatment to help slow cognitive decline in patients suffering from mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Perhaps the most promising data from studies involving natural and naturally occurring supplements is their safety. When consumed in the proper amounts, choline is safe and side-effect free, a claim that very few prescription medications can make.

While there aren’t daily recommended amounts of choline that you should be consuming, there are baseline amounts that researchers have shown to be beneficial. The average man or woman above the age of 14 years old, should be consuming between 425 and 550mg daily.

Some sources claim that it is very difficult to get enough choline through diet alone, as the body may have trouble absorbing it for various reasons, which include genetic disorders. These same experts recommend supplementing, and with high quality supplements.

Choline in the form of a supplement

Echoing the warnings of those public service announcements from the ‘80s, the mind is truly a terrible thing to waste, but it is even more unfortunate that most often, the mind simply deteriorates with age, thus making it the future endeavor of every brain on earth.

But that’s no reason to simply resolve yourself to inaction. Especially in the case of your brain, it is most beneficial to be proactive in maintaining its health, and choline is a proven, and effective place to begin.

Probiotics and Anti-Aging

Probiotics and Anti-Aging

Americans are only just recently discovering what other cultures have known forever, that the gut and the microbiota living there are instrumental in overall health. Not only can your gut control the amount of nutrients your body absorbs, but studies show that the microbiota living there can actually communicate with your body via chemical signals, even influencing your metabolism and how the body burns fat.

Probiotics, once an unknown word and concept, have moved into the forefront of the American awareness, largely due to word of mouth touting their ability to help restore gut health. The word probiotics is a general term used to describe all of the microorganisms living in the gut, but not all are beneficial. The gut contains an extremely delicate balance of microorganisms, some which are beneficial and others that are detrimental.

Consuming foods rich in beneficial probiotics, like sauerkraut, dark chocolate, microalgae, fermented foods like miso and kimchi, pickles and tempeh, can help to crowd the gut with good microbes which in turn starve out the bad ones.

Fermented probiotic foods

Having a well-rounded mix of microbes in the gut provides many benefits to the body, including helping to support healthy immune system function, preventing and treating urinary tract infections, improving digestive function, healing inflammatory bowel conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, managing and treating skin disorders like eczema, fighting food borne illnesses, boosting metabolism and telling the body to burn fat, and even providing support in how the body ages.

Scientists are discovering more benefits of probiotics every day. One recent study suggests that the microbes in the gut can affect how a person ages, helping to “restore acidic skin pH, alleviate oxidative stress, attenuate photoaging, improve skin barrier function, and enhance hair quality.” Researchers believe that probiotics are so integral to our survival, that they can slow the skin manifestations of both intrinsic and extrinsic aging, meaning that they can help the skin age slower at a cellular level in addition to the skin as a whole.

Another study looks at the effects of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055), and its ability to extend the lifespan of the animals they inhabit. Studies show that this specific strain of bacteria can help prevent the host from catching influenza A and other viruses, which can also help the host with longevity.

To test its effect on the aging process, scientists examined the effects of LG2055 on lifespan and aging of Caenorhabditis elegans, a species of roundworm that lives in temperate soil environments, and analyzed the mechanism of prolongevity, with the results showing a positive effect on longevity.

Researchers found that “Feeding with LG2055 upregulated the expression of the skn-1 gene and the target genes of SKN-1, encoding the antioxidant proteins enhancing antioxidant defense responses.”

Your DNA

For this study, results showed that LG2055 promoted the roundworm to express a gene that in turn had an antioxidant effect for the roundworm. Antioxidants are extremely important to living organisms, as they remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents, preventing against diseases like cancer.

For the roundworm, research concludes that “feeding with LG2055 is effective to the extend lifespan in C. elegans by a strengthening of the resistance to oxidative stress and by stimulating the innate immune response signaling including p38MAPK signaling pathway and others.”

Round worm

By introducing the right kind of probiotics to the gut of the roundworm, scientists were able to extend its lifespan. They discovered that the probiotics could cause the roundworm to express certain genes, increasing its ability to fight free radicals, the effect of oxidative stress on molecules in the body. Free radicals are so destructive because they lead to atomic chain reactions that can damage the body’s cells.

Another beneficial strain of probiotics is Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 (HY7714), with studies showing that it can help slow down the aging process on our skin, the most visible age-identifier on our bodies.

Researchers studied these effects on 110 participants aged between 41 and 59 years, each with noticeable dry skin and wrinkles. Research lasted 12 weeks, during which time participants received either HY7714 or a placebo, measuring the skin for hydration, wrinkles, skin gloss, and elasticity. At the close of the trial, researchers noted significant increases in the skin water content of the face and hands for the group treated with HY7714.

Volunteers in the probiotic group also experienced significant reduction in wrinkle depth, and a significant increase in skin gloss by week 12. Finally, when skin elasticity was measured, the group taking HY7714 had improved elasticity by 13.17 percent by week 4, and almost 22 percent by week 12.

With anti-aging results as promising as these, it won’t be long before people are taking specifically engineered probiotics as part of their skin regimen.

The ability of probiotics to communicate with the body is truly amazing. One thinks of bacteria as tiny organisms without a central intelligence organ like a brain, just trudging around eating things, so it is truly incredible to realize that these tiny, seemingly insignificant organisms are so essential to the function of our body. They can talk to our bodies via the cells in our colon and intestines, relaying chemical messages that can benefit us in ways we’ve yet to fully understand.

Organisms in you body

Probiotics can be found in over-the-counter treatments like pills, or more easily in certain foods. Some cultures have been consuming them, unwittingly enough, for ages. Asian foods feature many fermented foods like miso and kimchi, each one a probiotic powerhouse. But other cultures enjoy probiotic rich foods as well.

Without the technology to study the mechanisms of fermented foods, these cultures simply relied on their gut to inform them of the benefits of fermented foods. When you eat them regularly, you just feel good.

Fermented soybean paste

Miso, or fermented soybean paste, has been found to have radio-protective properties, preventing against radiation effects, but is also a rich source of calcium, isoflavones, and vitamin K, each of which helps maintain bone health. In addition, miso is rich in probiotics, helping to heal the gut and benefit the body in ways yet unknown.

Another great probiotic food is sauerkraut. Cabbage alone is dietary powerhouse, with high levels of dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, K, and many B vitamins, as well as iron, manganese, copper, sodium, magnesium, and calcium. Sauerkraut also contributes a healthy amount of protein to the diet, along with large levels of probiotics to help the digestive tract and help the body absorb all of those nutrients effectively.


Probiotics are nature’s little helpers and chances are you’re not getting enough probiotics in your diet. The Western diet is typically high in fat and sodium, and low in nutrients. Getting more probiotics can require a pretty serious lifestyle change for some, but be assured that your body will thank you for it.

Huperzine A for Brain Health

Huperzine A for Brain Health

While all of the body’s organs are obviously vital for survival, few need protecting more than the brain, the organ responsible for every activity in the body. The brain is particularly difficult to treat and protect from damage, as its cells typically do not regenerate, so when damage occurs, it is usually for a lifetime.

While all of the body’s organs are obviously vital for survival, few need protecting more than the brain, the organ responsible for every activity in the body. The brain is particularly difficult to treat and protect from damage, as its cells typically do not regenerate, so when damage occurs, it is usually for a lifetime.

Neurons in the brain

Alzheimer’s disease is one such illness that permanently affects the brain, and in turn, affects the entire body. A form of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that occurs when nerve cells in the brain die, which leads to symptoms like confusion, and impaired memory, thinking and behavior.

This disease begins by damaging brain cells, and eventually destroys them entirely, getting worse as the disease progresses.

As Alzheimer’s disease continually degrades the brain, the nerve cells are also degraded, and communication from the brain to the body begins to become difficult, which can affect bodily functions.

Recently, researchers have identified several abnormalities that contribute to an individual contracting Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Brain cells losing connection: The brain cells responsible for memory, communication, and learning begin to lose contact, making signal transmission impossible. This affects functions like memory, as brain cells cannot transmit memories from short term to long term for example.
Brain neurons losing connection
  • Plaques: Microscopic masses of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid are found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. These peptides are from a larger protein found in the fatty membrane surrounding nerve cells. Beta-amyloid is chemically “sticky” and gradually builds up into plaques. Beta amyloid peptides are toxic to nerve cells.
  • Tangles: Tangles are twisted microscopic strands of the protein tau that form in the nerve cells of the brain and destroy a vital cell transport system made of proteins.
  • Inflammation: The body’s natural immune system triggers the inflammatory effect throughout the body. Chronic inflammation causes a lot of trouble throughout the body and is thought to be responsible for most deadly diseases in one way or another.

Like other troubling diseases, studies are ongoing to develop more effective treatments for disorders of the brain like Alzheimer’s.

Huperzine A

One such treatment that researchers have found to show promise is a compound called huperzine A, a substance made from Chinese club moss. Huperzine A is highly purified from the Chinese club moss, and has shown promise in treating Alzheimer’s disease, as well as to improve memory and learning enhancement, energy, and alertness. Huperzine A is so effective at preventing nerve damage that it is even used to protect against agents that can damage the nerves, such as nerve gases.

Huperzine A (Hup A) is thought to be beneficial for problems with memory, loss of mental abilities (dementia), and the muscular disorder myasthenia gravis because it causes an increase in the levels of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is one of the chemicals that our nerves use to communicate in the brain, muscles, and other areas.

A study published in the journal Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine performed a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of this powerful compound for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). The analysis involved 8 AD trials with 733 participants, and two VD trials with 92 participants, evaluating the effectiveness of huperzine A via the minimental state examination (MMSE) and activities of daily living scale (ADL).

After scouring many other studies, researchers concluded that “Hup A could significantly improve the MMSE and ADL score of AD and VD patients, and longer durations would result in better efficacy for the patients with AD.”

In addition to improvements in the minimental state examination and activities of daily living scales, researchers also noticed that there was also a significant improvement of cognitive function, measured by memory quotient (MQ) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and little to no negative side-effects were noticed. The side-effects were noted to be only of mild-to-moderate severity, leading researchers to believe that huperzine A is both effective and safe.


The explanation behind the effectiveness of huperzine A is its ability to inhibit an enzyme that degrades a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is known as the “learning neurotransmitter”, as it is involved in many of the brain’s functions, and its degradation results in brain disorders. It is also involved in muscle contraction. Huperzine A works to help inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase from breaking down the acetylcholine molecules in the brain, leading to reduced damage from the enzyme in the brain.

Another meta-study noticed similarities in the effectiveness of huperzine A to protect the brain from Alzheimer’s disease.

This study, published in PLoS ONE, conducted a review of randomized clinical trials of huperzine A for Alzheimer’s disease, and found 20 studies with 1823 total participants. Researchers conducting this study found that when compared to placebo, huperzine A showed “a significant beneficial effect on the improvement of cognitive function as measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks, and by Hastgawa Dementia Scale (HDS) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) at 8 weeks and 12 weeks.”

Other studies have also noted that the longer huperzine A is administered, the greater the effect on the participant, suggesting the safety and efficacy of long term usage.

Huperzia serrata extracted from the Chinese club moss

Like all studies, these are simply guidelines for efficacy, but hundreds of independent studies do indeed point to the efficacy of huperzine A for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. This new weapon in the fight against terrible brain diseases is just that, one approach. A major benefit of huperzine A is its safety.

Huperzine A has been found to be very safe for short term usage, as well as safe for use for up to three months, making it a good complement to other effective treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. And this seems to be the best approach to treatment, a complementary regimen of powerful compounds that together may represent an effective and safe long term treatment plan.

Acid Reflux and Canned Food

Acid Reflux and Canned Food

With a multitude of causes, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) will affect 60 percent of the United States population at some point in any given 12 month period, and as much as 30 percent will experience symptoms weekly. Data suggests that approximately 7 million Americans have some symptoms of GERD.

GERD occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter, the ring of muscle between the esophagus and the stomach that keeps the esophagus closed in order to prevent stomach acid and consumed food from rising into the esophagus, is either weak or relaxes inappropriately, allowing the stomach’s contents to escape into the throat.


Some forms of GERD are caused by hiatal hernia which can weaken the esophageal sphincter. Hiatal hernia happens when the upper portion of the stomach moves up into the chest through a small hole in the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the stomach from the chest. Hiatal hernia is thought to allow the stomach’s contents to leak back up into the esophagus more easily.

Identified by symptoms ranging from heartburn to lasting damage to the esophagus, GERD is a serious gastroesophageal disorder. Most people will experience symptoms like burning sensations in the chest that moves up towards the neck and throat, leaving an acid taste in the mouth. Symptoms can last as long as two hours and are exacerbated by eating.

The causes of GERD are numerous and wide reaching, ranging from diet to genetic factors, to environmental factors. One interesting new link being explored is that between canned foods and acid reflux.

Canned foods

More specifically, the inner lining used in canning foods has recently been under fire for possible links to several health risks from exposure to BPA, a type of plastic. Bisphenol A, or BPA for short, has been linked to such things as structural damage to the brain, increased fat formation and higher risk of obesity, altered immune function, stimulation of cancer cells, specifically prostate cancer, increased prostate size and decreased sperm production, and even changes in gender-specific behavior or abnormal sexual behavior.

Studies are revealing that acid reflux may be another ailment to add to the list caused by consuming high amounts of canned food.

The elevated risk of acid reflux from canned foods is, as studies are revealing, related mostly to certain canned foods being high in salt content, with one study referring specifically to the risks of smoked and canned foods.

This study examines the Alimentary factors in the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia in functional dyspeptic patients, studying 320 patients with functional dyspepsia. Using a food consumption questionnaire, researchers measured food intake of half of the patients, each with intestinal metaplasia, the transformation (metaplasia) of epithelium (usually of the stomach or the esophagus) into a type of epithelium resembling that found in the intestine, a disorder that can lead to cancer.

Upon completion of the study, researchers found “a higher frequency of canned and smoked foods consumption in the first group and, on the other hand, a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in patients without intestinal metaplasia” recommending that participants who consumed a lot of canned and smoked foods to decrease their consumption od said foods, and increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables, which researchers found can actually lead to a diminution of gastric metaplasia.

Fruits and Vegetables

Like the previous study, another study evaluates the role of salt intake in gastric intestinal metaplasia, hoping to draw a connection between salt intake and eventual gastric cancer.


Researchers conducted a meta-study, reviewing 17 articles that address the association between dietary salt exposure and gastric intestinal metaplasia, estimating salt exposure via salt and salty food consumption, preference for salty foods, use of table salt, and sodium urinary excretion.

This research found that the combined odds ratio was 1.68 for the association between salty meat consumption and intestinal metaplasia, as well, the combined odds ratio for salt preference in diet was 1.53, finding a statistically significant association between an over-preference of salt and intestinal metaplasia.

Consuming too much salt in the diet is harmful in many other ways as well, with studies showing a connection between high amounts of salt intake and extremely harmful diseases like kidney damage, high blood pressure which can lead to cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and even stroke or death, and some suggest that salt intake may be bad for our bones as well.

Eat less salt

Since sodium is a preservative, many canned foods have elevated sodium levels, making them doubly harmful; the high sodium levels causing the aforementioned diseases and the BPA and other chemicals in the lining of the can linked to cancer and other dangerous diseases.

Another stomach disorder that is plaguing Americans is functional dyspepsia, and there may be a link between this and GERD, as studies suggest common pathogenic mechanisms.

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic disorder of sensation and movement (peristalsis) in the upper digestive tract. Peristalsis is the normal downward pumping and squeezing of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine, which begins after swallowing. The symptoms of this common disorder are stomach discomfort, bloating, burping, feeling full very quickly after eating, nausea, and vomiting.

To test the theory of commonality in GERD and functional dyspepsia, researchers studied 184 subjects for 4 months, using an interview-based questionnaire to diagnose functional dyspepsia and GERD while evaluating eating habits and frequency of food intake. GERD was deemed present in 31 percent of participants with predictors being advanced age and the use of canned foods. Functional dyspepsia was present in 7.6 percent of participants with its predictors being low education level, consumption of canned food, and the consumption of alcoholic drinks at least weekly.

Salty foods and alcoholic beverages

A common denominator in functional dyspepsia and GERD is regular consumption of canned foods, as well as consumption of fast food, notoriously salty and fat laden, and regular consumption of alcoholic beverages.

The connection with fast food further drives home the point that reducing sodium consumption is a great way to improve health almost instantly. Fast food is notorious for being extremely high in sodium, in addition, most meals are served with a side of French fries, to which most consumers can be seen adding more salt, making fast food a sure-fire cause of high blood pressure and eventually all of the effects of that disorder.

Our ancestors have been canning food since about 1810, the invention of which was the result of the French government requiring a cheap and effective way to store large amounts of food for long periods of time. It has helped our species survive famine, so there is obvious benefit in the practice of canning.

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Stress and the General Adaptation Syndrome

Stress is a normal, unavoidable part of modern life, which all animals must cope with. Not all stress is a bad thing, and sometimes it can save your life. We’ve all heard of the “fight or flight” reaction, and this survival mechanism is a natural response to external stressors, helping us react quickly to a potentially dangerous situation.

We still rely on this ancient autonomous response to keep us safe these days, but we don’t need it as much as we did when it was imperative to our survival. In fact, we’ve dragged this archaic survival mechanism all the way with us through our evolution, to modern day scenarios, which for the extremely large majority of us, no longer involve the danger of being eaten alive.

The outdated stress response has become burdensome and actually physically damaging to our modern bodies. We, as animals, don’t cope very well with stress, and chronic stress kills.

It is estimated that more than 110 million people die each year as a direct result of stress, equaling 7 deaths every two seconds.

Stress can cause serious ailments like asthma, obesity, fatigue, irritability, lack of motivation and interest, headaches, upset stomach, reduced appetite and sexual drive, and the stress-related diseases that kill are heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and many more.

Modern day stressors are so prevalent that the body has no time to recover, we transition through our day from waking up to an alarm, which is enough to stress the coolest cucumber out, dealing with daily traffic, working a stressful job and dealing with deadlines, and then there are the constant stressors that never subside like financial worries, relationship stressors, familial problems, and all of the other modern societal worries that plague us all as thinking, feeling beings.

While it has been a permanent part of our lives since our creation as a species, we were unaware of stress and its impact on us until a scientist by the name of Hans Selye placed a name on this bodily response, and measured its effects.

Hans Selye was an Austrian/Canadian endocrinologist of Hungarian origin who discovered and coined the theory of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). Selye was born in Vienna, Austria in 1907 and died in 1982 in Montreal, Canada. The term “stress” actually comes from the field of physics, used to describe an organism’s physiological response to perceived stressful conditions in its environment.

Selye’s GAS contends that stress leads the body to engage in a three-stage response.

  1. Alarm: This is the famous “fight or flight” portion of response to stress. During this stage, the body reacts autonomously to a stressor, mobilizing all of the appropriate resources in the body, i.e., adrenaline, to adequately respond to the stressor, threat, or danger.
  2. Resistance: After the alarm stage, the body attempts to return to normal, resisting and compensating the effects of the alarm stage as the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body’s internal levels to normal.
  3. Exhaustion: A common side effect of adrenaline is the exhaustion afterwards, often called the adrenaline dump. This stage is the cause of chronic disease, because as we are exposed to stress on a near-constant basis, the body remains in a state of exhaustion, making it susceptible to disease and eventually death.

The three steps of GAS happen internally, and as a result of the parasympathetic nervous system, making them autonomous, which is where the problem lies. If we could control these reactions, we could choose to react in a healthy way, but since we can’t choose our reaction the body constantly reacts to the maximum of its potential, over exhausting itself and eventually leading to damaging effects.

During the first step, alarm, the brain notices the danger and signals the adrenal glands to release two powerful substances epinephrine and norepinephrine. Next, cortisol is released into the body via the hypothalamus and pituitary glands.

These substances make the body more alert, focused, reduces pain receptors making the body less responsive to pain, and inhibits reproductive behaviors and desires. During this time, heart rate is increased, blood pressure is increased, and the body provides fuel for it to remove itself from danger if necessary, redirecting blood flow from the gastrointestinal and digestive processes to muscles, heart, and brain.

During the fight or flight stage, Selye purported, there is a sharp increase in energy production and nutrient utilization. All of these processes happen nearly instantly, and subside when the stressor or danger is no longer imminent.

The “silent killer”, as it’s been termed by doctors, stress is such a danger to our lives because of our inability to cope with it. There are countless medications to treat the effects of chronic stress, but very few that can actually help with stress as it is occurring, mainly because it happens without us knowing.

But there are ways that you can cope with the effects of stress that don’t include taking medication.

First, diet is extremely essential in coping with the effects of stress. Eating healthy, well-balanced meals rich in green leafy vegetables. These vegetables, like spinach, are rich in folate which can help the body produce compounds that have mood-stabilizing capabilities like serotonin and dopamine.

Exercise can help mitigate the effects of stress, benefitting the cardiovascular system, muscle performance, and even improving mental performance which helps us cope with stress more effectively.

When stress impacts the brain, the rest of the body feels it as well, so exercising can help increase concentration and keep your mind sharp in stressful situations.

Drugs and alcohol can help you cope with stress, their benefits are extremely short lived and very much outweighed by the damage they cause on the body and mind. Avoiding drugs and alcohol is essential to a healthy life, and it is paramount that they are not used as a crutch to deal with stress, because they almost always compound stress and harms the body.

Meditation is used throughout the world, especially in eastern societies, as the main coping tool against stress. Tai chi and yoga are wonderful ways to fight stress, uniting the mind and body in a single activity and using breathing and exercise to relax the body. Breathing is one of the only natural ways that we can counteract the autonomous nature of the parasympathetic nervous system. Breathing can slow heart rate, blood pressure, and clear the mind, making it the ultimate tool for immediate stress relief.

Finally, consider taking one or more adaptogenic herbs to help your body cope with stress.  Adaptogenic herbs can help support your adrenal glands in any three of the phases of the GAS.  For an herbal agent to be consider to be an adaptogenic herb, it must meet three criteria:

  1. They must be non-specific and help the body in various adverse conditions, such as physical or environmental stress.
  2. They must counter the physicalimpact of stress.
  3. They must not harm the usual working of the body.

Some of my favortite adaptogenic herbs include Rhodiola, Ashwagandha, Eluethrococcus, Schisandra, Panax ginseng, Holy basil, and Cordyceps.

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